Dr Philip Jamieson (with Marianne Schmidt)
The following jointly authored paper was published in Nexus: The Alternative News Magazine 29(3) (April-May 2022) 27-33, 84-85 (available, as published, at https://nexusmagazine.com/product/the-memory-of-water/?v=6cc98ba2045f). Philip enjoyed the opportunity to present on this paper to the Australian Homeopathic Association QLD on Sunday, 28 August 2022.
Water is fundamental to our existence. We are organisms principally composed of water, ultimately dependent upon water to live out our existence upon a planet primarily covered by water. Little wonder that water features prominently in myths, religious beliefs, folktales and other traditions.
Water and knowledge in myths and traditions
While water is central to many ancient myths, from creation to its role in healing and cleansing, one perhaps less well explored theme in that mythology and tradition has been its role as a source of knowledge and wisdom.
Water in wells
Take the example of the Norse god Odin, who in a quest for knowledge gives one of his eyes to the waters of Mimir’s Well. In exchange he receives the opportunity to drink of its waters from which he receives the knowledge he sought. Nor are the waters a source of merely factual information for Odin, but rather of deeper understanding. In sacrificing his eye, limited in its perceptions, he gains a much more profound perception: wisdom and enlightenment.
The story of Mimir himself only reinforces this understanding. Drinking daily of the waters of the well that he guards, he is esteemed for his knowledge and wisdom. Significantly, his namenot only means the Rememberer or Wise One but is thought to bear a historical linguistic relationship with our English term “memory”.
Water in fountains and springs
Mimir’s Well brings to mind the common saying that someone who knows everything is “a fount of all knowledge”, presumably its origins lying in the Bible’s “fountain” or “wellspring” of wisdom in Proverbs 18:4. In a similar vein, Terri Windling has commented on the generality of the theme in fairy tales of “heroes … sent on long journeys to the Well at the End of the World, or to springs in the dark heart of the forest, ordered to retrieve a vial of the Water of Life”, a few drops of this water conferring wisdom amongst other gifts.
We also find traditions associating seawater with knowledge and wisdom.
In Ancient Greek mythology, the god Proteus is “the old man of the sea” who is given the gift of prophecy by Poseidon and has knowledge of all things. Reference to the sea is also apparent in a tradition amongst the New Zealand Maori in which the god Tane journeys to the heavens to retrieve the knowledge to guide human existence on Earth. He receives three baskets of knowledge, along with two sacred stones. These stones, an allusion to seawater apparent in their names – Hukatai (Seafoam) and Rehutai (Seaspray) – facilitate the assimilation of that knowledge to ensure that the recipient can achieve wisdom. In Islamic tradition, al-Khiḍr is believed to possess divine wisdom with links particularly to sea travellers to whom he would reveal divine secrets.
There are similarly narratives in which rivers feature linking water with knowledge. In Celtic mythology, Danu, the goddess of the rivers and other large bodies of water (and after whom the Danube River is named), breastfeeds the gods as the supreme matriarch and, in so doing, gives them wisdom and knowledge. Amongst the Celts, there is also the Irish myth of the Salmon of Knowledge which, having swum up a local river and found shelter in a quiet pool, devours all the knowledge of the world that is contained in the falling nuts of the surrounding hazel trees. Neith, an early Ancient Egyptian goddess, is also linked with both rivers and wisdom.In Sumerian myth, Enki is the Annunaki god of wisdom and (fresh) water. In some myths, he has a daughter, Innana (later Akkadian Ishtar), who is likely related to the later goddesses of water and wisdom, the Ancient Persian goddess Anahita and the Armenian goddess Annahit. In a further reflection of an Indo-Iranian tradition identifying water with wisdom, Ahurānī, a Zoroastrian water goddess, enlightens thought, speech and acts.
These links between water and knowledge are also evident in the Hindu goddess and river deity, Saraswati. Associated with Persian Anahita, she is a goddess of knowledge, wisdom and the Saraswati River, for whom water has been described not only as her “very being” but also as a “symbol of inspired thought”. In Bali, Indonesia, she is linked to the traditional ritual Banyu Pinaruh. The ritual, deriving its name from “banyu” meaning sacred water and “pinaruh” meaning knowledge, celebrates the sacred waters of knowledge. Indeed, the Vedic texts more generally identify water as a medium to attain spiritual enlightenment, a relationship that also brings to mind the rituals of baptism and similar traditions in other cultures.
In the Japanese Buddhist goddess Benzaiten, whose origins lie in Saraswati, we find a goddess of everything that flows, concepts that also include both water and knowledge.
These are merely examples from an extensive body of myths and other traditions suggesting water to be a source of knowledge, and not simply of fact, but also of wisdom, understanding and enlightenment.
The science of water and knowledge
We are increasingly finding that developments in modern science are supporting the validity of many ancient traditions. So too this ancient belief that water contains information.
In scientific discussion, the idea that water can store and transmit information has been termed “water memory”. In its narrowest sense, this refers to “the ability of water to retain ‘memory’ of substances previously dissolved in it, even when there is a very high dilution factor to the point that no molecule of the substance remains in the solution”. However, such molecular memory is only one aspect of the broader sense in which the term is popularly used, an ability to store and transmit knowledge – not merely factual information, but also of an energetic nature, like our emotions, thoughts, feelings and, as appears from the myths and beliefs we have related, even extending to inspired thought, wisdom, understanding and enlightenment.
The somewhat tortured path to the growing, but still widely disputed, scientific recognition of the ability of water to store information is generally described as beginning with the publication in 1988 by the French immunologist Jacques Benveniste of a co-authored paper on “Human basophil degranulation triggered by very dilute antiserum against IgE”. The rather unprepossessing title of the paper belies the consternation that followed its publication. The implications of the study reported were that water appeared to be capable of transmitting biological information about molecules that had at one time been in solution within it but were now absent.
This was treated by many as apparent proof of homeopathy, particularly as it was noted in the paper that the dilutions needed to be accompanied by vigorous shaking for the effects to be observed, an action similarly employed in homeopathy.
While it is at times asserted that the results of that study have never been successfully replicated, there have been a number of studies in the years since pointing to a similar phenomenon. Two noted researchers have been the French virologist Luc Montagnier (who shared the 2008 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his contribution to identifying HIV) and Professor Bernd Kröplin.
Montagnier’s research is particularly interesting.In laboratory experiments involving adjacent test tubes of pure water and DNA in water solution, the DNA appears to have been able to transmit information concerning its structure to the pure water in the adjacent test tube, where (with the addition of the appropriate ingredients to synthesize the DNA by polymerase chain reaction) a copy of that DNA was able to be produced.
Further academic support for the existence of “water memory” has also come from Kröplin’s research. He and other researchers at Stuttgart University began studying the phenomenon in 1998. While he published on a number of occasions in the years following, his most recent text, Water and its memory: New astonishing insights in water research, published with Regine C. Henschel in 2017, outlines their supporting research.
Describing their research and its implications, Kröplin concludes:
… beyond [water’s] physical and chemical qualities also memory and information play a significant role in water, and these build a bridge from the immaterial to the material world. These subtle phenomena … can neither be studied nor detected by traditional experimental methods.
Hence, we use a different approach: we investigate the patterns that appear in a water drop after evaporation of the water and photograph them …. We can prove that the patterns correlate with information exposed to the water. …
… By the observed patterns, we realize that water has a particular kind of memorizing and storing information of things that it has experienced. From experiments, we can also see that living organisms, like plants, can “read” this information and act with a unique behavior to the information stored in the water.
Our findings prove the memory of water and also the communication between separate units of water [over a distance of about 1.5 meters] .
Dr Robert Schoch in his 2021 revision, with Catherine Ulissey, of his text Forgotten Civilization, points to a number of reviews of “the growing, if still controversial, evidence that water can carry information”, concluding that “[t]here is now strong evidence that liquid water, particularly in living systems, clusters into frameworks with the ability to store and transmit information and mediate chemical and biological functions”.
Acknowledging the evidence of the studies supporting the validity of “water memory”, the question remains how water functions in this way.
Schoch’s comments point to frameworks formed from clusters of water molecules as somehow lying behind the phenomenon. Underpinning these frameworks is the polarity of a water molecule. Composed of an oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms [H2O]), it has an asymmetrically charged structure in which the positive charge of a hydrogen atom of one water molecule is attracted to the negative charge of an adjacent water molecule’s oxygen atom, thereby resulting in a hydrogen bond and, in turn, clusters of water molecules. That frameworks formed from these clusters of water molecules might lie behind the phenomenon was evident even from Benveniste’s original study, the authors of the 1988 paper concluding that as the “dilutions needed to be accompanied by vigorous shaking for the effects to be observed, transmission of the biological information could be related to the molecular organization of water”.
In considering how its molecular organisation might be relevant, Benveniste and his fellow researchers speculated that water might act as a ‘template’, for the molecule that was substituted in their experiment, perhaps by an infinite hydrogen bonded network or through electric and magnetic fields. Amongst the various theories that have been advanced in the years since, this early speculation has been reflected in the two main (although not exhaustive) theoretical models that have emerged in explanation of the mechanism of water memory: hydrogen bonded clathrates and coherence domains associated with electromagnetic fields (EMFs).
The various theories that have been proposed have tended to emphasise processes that in some manner establish structured frameworks, water structures being described in terms such as “coherence domains”, “clathrate frames”  and “water pearl” chains, that emerge from the application of some external influence (such as an electric or electromagnetic field, mechanical impact, abrupt temperature or pressure change) . The coherent framework that results provides the “memory” environment. In one description, analogy has been drawn to the way in which ferromagnetic ordering is used for storing information on a computer disk, proposing that electromagnetic transmission of biochemical information might be stored in the “electric dipole moments” of water.
One further interesting development worthy of mention has been the potential role in explanation of water memory of a fourth phase of water, liquid crystalline in nature and termed “exclusion zone water” (sometimes referred to as “structured water”).
Relationship to homeopathy
It is also worth noting that much of the research into water memory has overlapped that undertaken into homeopathy. Certainly, those who use homeopathy believe in its benefits: practised in virtually every country in the world over the past 200 years, Bill Gray notes its “explosive resurgence” in the United States with the growing popularity of alternative medicine. While the science behind the practice remains widely disputed in mainstream circles, research and theory are also pointing towards similar mechanisms in support of its reality.
Referencing just a few examples, Gray has proposed that the process of diluting and shaking in homeopathy creates clusters of water molecules aligned with associated EMFs. The theory that EMFs are important in the homeopathic process has also been supported by other researchers. Quantum coherence domains (of around 100 nm in diameter) in water have been postulated as storing the original substance information in the form of electromagnetic frequencies. Utilising quantum electrodynamics principles, such “coherence domains” have been suggested to derive from the progressive dilution/succussion homeopathic processes, coding the original substance information (in terms of phase oscillations) which can then be transferred to patients (by phase resonance).
What types of information may be stored and transmitted?
It is clear that there are a number of theoretical models that may account for the scientific experiments supporting the reality of water memory. Thus far we have been examining that science in the context of the storage and transmission of data and other forms of factual information; in Montagnier’s experiments, for example, information about the structure of the DNA that was in solution in the first test tube. That DNA apparently transmitted information about its structure (through extremely low frequency EMFs it emitted) to water in an adjacent test tube in a manner that enabled a copy of the DNA to be produced in that water.
This occurred between separate test tubes. The information was transmitted between the two via a non-physical means: low frequency electromagnetic waves. Every organ – indeed, every cell – in our bodies produces EMFs. Could the EMFs that we emit from our bodies transmit to water, in this same non-physical way, much more than merely factual information, but also energetic information, such as emotions, thoughts and feelings?
The work of the HeartMath Institute is instructive. Their focus is particularly upon the EMFs emitted by the heart. The most powerful source of electromagnetic energy in the human body, they note that it produces a magnetic field more than100 times greater in strength than that generated by the brain and is able to be detected up to 3 feet away from the body. They have also found that information about a person’s emotional state is encoded in the heart’s EMF. Via this field, that information is able to be communicated not only throughout the body but also into the external environment, including as between people.
It also appears from Montagnier’s experiments that water is able to record and transmit information via (at least certain) EMFs. Do the Institute’s findings as to the storage and transmission of emotions via the heart’s EMF suggest the possibility of storage and transmission of emotions within water via EMFs? And, if emotions, could this include other types of energetic information such as thoughts and feelings?
Long held myths and other traditions suggest so. While these are certainly consistent with the science supporting the storage and transmission of factual data through water memory, it is equally apparent from them that water memory might also encompass forms of knowledge much broader than merely factual information, even extending to encompass inspired thought, understanding, wisdom and enlightenment.
Emotions, thoughts and feelings are energetic foundations for our development of frameworks of such understanding. If these are capable of storage and transmission by water, their transmission arguably also implies the possible receipt of consequential constructs, like wisdom and enlightenment, by the recipient of the transmission. There are studies that do indeed suggest that energetic information such as our emotions may be the subject of “water memory”.
Memory of emotions, thoughts and feelings?
We noted earlier that Kröplin found that patterns in water drops after evaporation of the water correlated with information to which the water has been exposed. The types of information that it was found impacted the patterns included emotions and music (together with such things as mobile phone emissions and even stones and plants).
This research supports the similar conclusions of others such as Viktor Kovalenko and Russian scientists Konstantin Korotkov and Stanislav Zenin, supporting the existence of water’s ability to remember energetic influences such as emotions. Perhaps most well known is the work of Japanese researcher Masaru Emoto.
Over many years of research, Emoto took thousands of photographs of crystals made from freezing water, having first exposed the water to words of a positive or negative nature. On examining the photographs he found that positively exposed crystals were balanced and well formed, while those subject to negative words were deformed and broken. The water reflected the energy of the words.
The role of vibration?
But how can words alone, kind or otherwise, influence a crystal’s appearance? Emoto says the answer lies in vibration. As Emoto comments, words are a form of vibration. It is the vibration of the words that influences the crystal’s appearance in its formation.
Emoto points to the fact that the entire universe is in a state of vibration. Everything within the universe is vibrating, and at its own frequency. Water has the capacity to mirror those vibrations that it receives.
Emoto is not alone in recognising vibration in some form as the ultimate foundation for water memory. Amongst others who have identified a foundational role for vibration, Physicist Auguste Meesen, for example, has recently postulated that chains of “water pearls” (spherical nano-particles formed by the electric field of charged parts of biologically active molecules) become information carriers when set in rotation at the frequency of the vibrating charged part of the molecules. Cell biologist Bruce Lipton, in postulating a form of hydrogen bonded communication network between water molecules, suggests that the bonds are conduits for vibrational information. Even where the information has been removed, he suggests that so long as “you still have the vibration in the [vibrational energy] field, the water molecules will apparently maintain the continued vibration, so that you can have the information transferred”.
Austrian inventor Viktor Schauberger utilised his understanding of the role of vibration in water memory in designing machinery to generate the ‘living water’ that exists in nature when water flows energetically in spirals and vortices. Information is able to be carried in the resulting microclusters of vibrating energy centres, stored as vibrational impressions or imprints. The more powerful this vortical action, the greater the information storage. Schauberger postulated that where these imprints are beneficial, free of pollutants and toxins, they may be able to restore healthy resonance in the human body. In the context of homeopathy, Gray makes a related observation in proposing that a homeopathic remedy works through vibration, effective when the remedy “vibration” resonates with the patient’s symptoms. In homeopathy too, the diluted substance is vigorously shaken to increase the effectiveness of information storing.
As early as 1991 the German biophysicist Wolfgang Ludwig made similar observations about the mechanism of homeopathy. He also focussed upon vibration as fundamental to water memory. In particular, he noted that while a single water molecule has many vibrations and emits electromagnetic signals in a wide frequency region, the molecular structures that result from the hydrogen bond linkages in water may produce a much larger number of vibrational frequencies again. Water is able to both store and transmit these frequencies. Some of these frequencies may be harmful to human health but others he argued may be beneficial and, in particular, the naturally existing frequency of 7.8 Hz, the base Schumann resonances frequency.
Montagnier’s experiments are particularly interesting in this regard, because, in order for the DNA-water solution to emit the information-bearing EMFs, it was necessary that it be stimulated by a very low frequency electromagnetic background. This could either be produced from natural sources, the Schumann resonances which start at 7.83 Hz, or from artificial electromagnetic backgrounds with frequencies similar to the Schumann ones. Does this role of the Schumann resonances in water memory suggest a broader connection to the postulated existence of some form of global information field, a field that utilises Earth’s magnetic fields to carry biologically relevant information connecting all living systems and consciousness? In drawing attention in a previous paper to the body of developing research supporting the existence of such a global information field, we observed how science is increasingly suggesting that, through our collective consciousness, we may use this global information field to impact not only our natural environment but also each other.
Our influence on others as “water beings”?
This thesis of a “collective consciousness” has an obvious relationship with the concept of water memory. If, as we believe the foundation for water memory ultimately lies in vibration, there would seem to be the same opportunity for us to use water memory to effect positive change in our social and natural environments. If water has the ability to mirror the vibrations we generate, our vibrations can ultimately energetically impact not only the influenced water but also the recipient of those vibrations transmitted by that water. As some 70% of the human body comprises water, how we feel, how we react to what is around us and how we perceive our place in the world may have profound implications for how we might influence others by communication of those reactions and perceptions through water memory. It is important to appreciate that while clearly this “water communication” may have a positive effect on the recipient where the water has been exposed to a positive external influence, it may equally have a negative effect where reflecting a negative influence. It is for this reason that Emoto invites us to keep love and gratitude in our hearts and to share positive vibration with those around us.
Some years ago, a study of organic matter dissolved in water surprised in finding that “water does not forget”, but retains a chemical memory of the organic material to which it has been exposed. Equally, the nature of water memory appears to be of far wider compass. Not only does water apparently have the capacity to retain a memory of substances previously dissolved in it even when there is such a dilution factor that no molecule of the original substance remains in the solution, there is evidence to suggest that the memory of water is not limited to matters of a purely factual nature. Science is suggesting that water memory may equally encompass wider forms of knowledge, energetic information, such as emotions, that provide foundations for the development of frameworks of understanding such as wisdom and enlightenment. These revelations about the memory of water are consistent with numerous myths, religious beliefs, folktales and other traditions. Nor does water appear merely to have the capacity to store the information that it receives – at least in certain circumstances, it also appears to be able to transmit that information.
While there are various theories postulated for the mechanism underlying water memory, we believe that the evidence is pointing towards its foundation as ultimately lying in vibration, that water can mirror the vibrations it receives. As Nikola Tesla so aptly observed, “[i]f you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration”.
As we are all mostly water, the vibrations we generate through our emotions, thoughts and feelings may determine the “memories” we create in water and how therefore we may influence others. Many indigenous cultures have long pointed to the unity of all things – that everything is one – the collective whole. As individuals, we are each responsible for the vibrations we emit and the effect they have, not only on other individuals, but also on that whole.
 On the material following, see Christensen, C., This is Why Odin Sacrificed His Eye in Norse Mythology, Scandinavia Facts (https://scandinaviafacts.com/this-is-why-odin-sacrificed-his-eye/); Sutherland, A., Giant Mimir And The Well Of Wisdom In Norse Beliefs (11 April 2018) Ancient Pages (https://www.ancientpages.com/2018/04/11/giant-mimir-and-the-well-of-wisdom-in-norse-beliefs/), Wikipedia contributors, “Mímir,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=M%C3%ADmir&oldid=1069374560; New World Encyclopedia contributors, “Mimir,” New World Encyclopedia (https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Mimir&oldid=692982).
 Windling, T.,Into the Woods, 12: Water, Wild and Sacred (13 June 2013)(https://www.terriwindling.com/blog/2013/06/into-the-woods-11-wild-waters.html).
 On the material following, see Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Proteus” (24 January 2022) Encyclopedia Britannica (https://www.britannica.com/topic/Proteus-Greek-mythology); “Proteus” U*X*L Encyclopedia of World Mythology (24 January 2022) Encyclopedia.com (https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/proteus); Spiller, C., “Tāne’s Journey to Retrieve Knowledge” (January 2011) in Marques, J. and Dhiman, S. (eds.), Stories to Tell Your Students: Transforming toward Organizational Growth (Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2011) (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304647888_Tane%27s_Journey_to_Retrieve_Knowledge); Anon, Khidir in the Enclyclopedia of Islam, sourced from Campo, J.E. (ed), Encyclopedia of Islam (http://khidr.org/encyclopedia.islam.khidr.htm), Brown, J., The Darvishes or Oriental Spiritualism (Oxford University Press, Humphrey Milford, London, 1927) at 100.
 On the material following, see Jay, N., “Danu – The Irish Mother Goddess”, Symbolsage (https://symbolsage.com/danu-irish-mother-goddess/); Windling, T., supra, O’Neill, B.,“Fionn Mac Cumhaill and the Salmon of Knowledge” (2 March 2020) Your Irish Culture (https://www.yourirish.com/folklore/salmon-of-wisdom); Wikipedia contributors, “Neith,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Neith&oldid=1064595616); World History EDU, Neith – Origins, Family, Meaning, Symbols & Powers (updated 20 September 2021) (https://www.worldhistoryedu.com/neith-origins-family-meaning-symbols-powers/); Mark, J., “Inanna” (15 October 2010) World History Encyclopedia (https://www.worldhistory.org/Inanna/; Cornwell, B., “Healing Water Goddesses: Four Sacred Guardians” (31 January 2021) Parabola (https://parabola.org/2021/01/31/healing-water-goddesses/); “Inanna-Ishtar” Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Culture Society History (1 February 2022) Encyclopedia.com (https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/inanna-ishtar); Wikipedia contributors, “Armenian mythology” (18 January 2022) Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Armenian_mythology&oldid=1066513154); The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies, Iranian Religions & Beliefs: Anahita; The Deity of Water, Fertility, Healing and Wisdom (https://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Religions/iranian/anahita.htm); Mark, J., “Anahita” (4 February 2020) World History Encyclopedia (https://www.worldhistory.org/Anahita/); Wikipedia contributors, “Anahita” (23 January 2022) Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anahita&oldid=1067511272); Wikipedia contributors, “Anahit” (28 December 2021) Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anahit&oldid=1062412717); Wikipedia contributors, “Ahurani” (29 October 2020) Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ahurani&oldid=986060789); Allen, R. (Allen P. and Saunders, C., eds), “Zoroastrian mythology: Ahurani” (14 May 2019) Godchecker (https://www.godchecker.com/zoroastrian-mythology/AHURANI/); Schlerath, B., “AHURĀNĪ” (updated 29 July 2011) Encyclopædia Iranica, I/7, p. 688; an updated version is available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ahurani-feminine-deity-of-the-waters; Heaphy, L., “Saraswati – Hindu Goddess of Knowledge, Music and the Arts”, Kashgar (https://kashgar.com.au/blogs/gods-goddesses/saraswati-hindu-goddess-of-knowledge-music-and-the-arts); Ludvik, C., Sarasvatī, Riverine Goddess of Knowledge: From the Manuscript-carrying Vīṇā-player to the Weapon-wielding defender of the Dharma (Leiden, Brill, 2007); Anon, Rituals, Water, the essence of life: water ceremonies from around the world (https://www.rituals.com/en-nl/mag-travel-water-rituals.html); I Ketut Wijaya, “Banyu Pinaruh Day Bali – A Celebration of the Sacred Water of Knowledge” (15 July 2018) Bigbog Bali (https://www.bigbogbali.com/2018/07/banyu-pinaruh-day-bali-celebration-of-the-sacred-water-of-knowledge.html); Deepa J. & Fawcett, B., (2001). Water, Hindu Mythology and an Unequal Social Order in India (August 2001) (Paper presented at the Second Conference of the International Water History Association, Bergen, August 2001) (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265066856_Water_Hindu_Mythology_and_an_Unequal_Social_Order_in_India); Wikipedia contributors, “Benzaiten” (3 December 2021) Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Benzaiten&oldid=1058470555).
 Ludvik, supra at 32.
 Deyhle, A. and GCI Research Team, “Properties of Water – Does Water Have Memory or Consciousness?” (7 October 2012) HeartMath Institute (https://www.heartmath.org/gci-commentaries/properties-of-water-does-water-have-memory-or-consciousness/).
 Davenas, E., et al. “Human Basophil Degranulation Triggered by Very Dilute Antiserum Against IgE.” (1983) 333 Nature 816–18.
 For example, Wikipedia contributors, “Water memory” (2 December 2021) Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Water_memory&oldid=1058185890).
 Montagnier, L. et al, “DNA waves and water”(2011) J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 306 012007 (https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/306/1/012007/pdf); Montagnier, L. et al, “Transduction of DNA information through water and electromagnetic waves” (2015) 34(2) Electromagn Biol Med 106 – 112 (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270594226_Transduction_of_DNA_information_through_water_and_electromagnetic_waves).
 Quote from Kröplin, B., “Memory and communication in water”, World in a Drop (https://www.weltimtropfen.de/index_english.html); also “Research: The communication of water – water and sympathy”(September 2016) World in a Drop (Interview with Regine C. Henschel by Ulrich Hinsen for ManagementRadio Germany) (https://www.weltimtropfen.de/forschung_kommunikation_english.html).
 Schoch, R. with Ulissey, C., Forgotten Civilization: New Discoveries on the Solar-Induced Dark Age (Inner Traditions, Rochester, Vermont, 2021) at 278.
 As noted in Meessen, A., “Water Memory Due to Chains of Nano-Pearls” (2018) 9 Journal of Modern Physics 2657-2724 (https://www.scirp.org/%28S%28351jmbntvnsjt1aadkozje%29%29/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=89620); Upadhyay R., “The Possible Mechanism of Memory through Nanoparticles and Exclusion Zones” (20 February 2017) 7 Water 158 – 176 (https://www.waterjournal.org/uploads/vol7/upadhyay/WATER.2016.4.Upadhyay.pdf).
 Vysotskii, V. & Kornilova, A., “The Spatial Structure of Water and the Problem of Controlled Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions in Water Matrix” (2006) 10.1142/9789812774354_0042 (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237397381_The_Spatial_Structure_of_Water_and_the_Problem_of_Controlled_Low-Energy_Nuclear_Reactions_in_Water_Matrix).
 Meessen (2018) and as described in Meessen, A., “Virus Destruction by Resonance” (2020) 11 Journal of Modern Physics 2011-2052 (https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=106157).
 As noted in Vysotskii & Kornilova, supra.
 Widom, A. et al. “The Biophysical Basis of Benveniste Experiments: Entropy, Structure, and Information in Water” (2010) 110(1) International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 252 – 256 (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229869574_The_Biophysical_Basis_of_Benveniste_Experiments_Entropy_Structure_and_Information_in_Water).
 See, for example, Upadhyay, supra; Ullman D., “Exploring Possible Mechanisms of Hormesis and Homeopathy in the Light of Nanopharmacology and Ultra-High Dilutions. (April 2021) 19(2) Dose-Response” (https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/15593258211022983).
 See, for example, the wellness enterprise, What is Structured Water? (1 July 2014) (https://thewellnessenterprise.com/what-is-structured-water/)
 Ullman, supra.
 Bill Gray, An Introduction to Homepathy (https://billgrayhomeopathy.com/introduction-to-homeopathy/).
 A recent consideration of possible mechanisms appears in Tournier, A. et al, “Physicochemical Investigations of Homeopathic Preparations: A Systematic Review and Bibliometric Analysis—Part 3” (2021) 27(1) The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 45–57.
 Recent examples include Vithoulkas G and Berghian-Grosan C., “The Spin of Electrons and the Proof for the Action of Homeopathic Remedies” (2020) 13(3) J Med Life 278-282 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7550134/).
 Del Giudice, E. and Preparata, G., “Coherence electrodynamics in water” in Schulte, J. and Endler, C. (ed), Fundamental Research in Ultrahigh Dilution and Homeopathy; 1998: 89 – 100 (referred to in Ullman, supra).
 Manzalini A. and Galeazzi, B., “Explaining Homeopathy with Quantum Electrodynamics. Homeopathy” (August 2019) 108(3) Homeopathy 169-176 (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30901775/).
 HeartMath Institute, Science of the Heart: Exploring the Role of the Heart in Human Performance – Chapter 6 Energetic Communication (https://www.heartmath.org/research/science-of-the-heart/energetic-communication/).
 Kovalenko, V., “Spin Nature of Water Memory” (2013) Science Journal of Physics Article ID sjp-206 (https://www.sjpub.org/sjp/sjp-206.pdf); Kovalenko, V., “Analogy of Memory Properties of Water and the Ones of the Brain” (2013) Science Journal of Physics Article ID sjp-261 (https://www.sjpub.org/sjp/sjp-261.pdf); Somabandhu Kodikara, Discussion With Pro. Korotkov – Part 3 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JfZH3al0gBI); Vladimir B.. (trans. Pulich Pravda Ru, A.), Do Not Offend Water – It Remembers Every Word You Say (17 June 2006) (https://www.energytherapy.me/do-not-offend-water—it-remembers-every-word-you-say.html).
 Emoto, M., (trans. Thayne, D.), The Miracle of Water (Atria Paperback, 2011) (esp at vii-viii); Emoto (trans. Thayne, D.), The Hidden Messages in Water (Beyond Words Publishing, Oregon, 2004).
 McLeod, S., Bruce Lipton on Homeopathy – Karma Singh interviews Dr. Bruce Lipton in July 2010 (22 July 2015) Little Mountain homeopathy (https://www.littlemountainhomeopathy.com/?s=lipton). See also Lipton, B., The Biology of Belief: Unleashing the Power of Consciousness, Matter & Miracles (1st Hay House edition, 2008).
 Discussed in Bartholomew, A., Hidden Nature: The Startling Insights of Viktor Schauberger (Floris Books, 2014).
 Wolfgang Ludwig (interview) (http://www.umh-umwelttechnologien.at/pdf_englisch/engl_ludwig_art.pdf) ; Ludwig, W., “Wolfgang Ludwig: The Memory of Water.” (2003) (https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Wolfgang-Ludwig-:-The-Memory-of-Water-Ludwig/2920c1f1ee3cf553f63e68ce958bb80717106cf5).
 Montagnier L. et al (2011). Potential relevant applications of the Schuman resonance are considered in Alrais, A. et al, (2017). “Schumann Resonances and Their Potential Applications: a Review Article” (2017) 27 Mordovia University Bulletin 476-489 (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321916355_Schumann_Resonances_and_Their_Potential_Applications_a_Review_Article).
Jamieson, P. and Schmidt, M., Plugged into the Planet – Timeless understanding in a time of global need (8 July 2020) (https://wordpress.com/post/innerscribe.home.blog/207).
 Emoto (2011) at 141.
Koch, B. and Kattner, G., Preface “Sources and rapid biogeochemical transformation of dissolved organic matter in the Atlantic surface ocean” (2012) 9 Biogeosciences 2597–2602 (https://bg.copernicus.org/articles/9/2597/2012/bg-9-2597-2012.pdf).
 Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres. “Science News: Chemical memory of seawater: Scientists examine biomolecules dissolved in the ocean and read them like a history book” (2012) ScienceDaily (www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121001102433.htm).